Wednesday, February 1, 2012

CSE-2 - ES class 2012 Feb-March

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

II YEAR B.TECH.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

I.0 Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies

1.1. Definition,

1.2. Scope and Importance –

1.3. Need for Public Awareness

2.0. Natural Resources :

2.1. Renewable and non-renewable resources

2.2. Natural resources and associated problems

2.3. Forest Resources – Use and over – exploitation

2.4. Deforestation, case studies – Timber extraction

2.5. Mining, dams and other effectson forest and tribal people

2.6. Water resources

2.7. Use and over utilization of surface and ground water

2.8. Floods, drought,

2.9. conflicts over water

2.10. dams – benefits and problems

2.11. Mineral resources: Use and exploitation

2.12. environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources

2.13. case studies. - Food resources

2.14. World food problems

2.15. changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing

2.16. effects of modern agriculture

2.17. fertilizer-pesticide problems

2.18. water logging, salinity

2.19. case studies. - Energy resources:

2.20. Growing energy needs,

2.21. renewable and non-renewable energy sources

2.22. use of alternate energy sources.

2.23. Case studies. Land resources:

2.24. Land as a resource,

2.25. land degradation,

2.26. man induced landslides

2.27. soil erosion and desertification

2.28. Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources

2.29. Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles

3.0. Ecosystems :

3.1. Concept of an ecosystem. –

3.2. Structure and function of an ecosystem. –

3.3. Producers, consumers and decomposers. –

3.4. Energy flow in the ecosystem –

3.5. Ecological succession. –

3.6. Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.-

3.7. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem:

3.7.a. Forest eco system

3.7.b. Grassland ecosystem

3.7.c. Desert ecosystem

3.7.d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

4.0. Biodiversity and its conservation :

4.1. Introduction –

4.2. Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. –

4.3. Bio-geographical classification of India –

4.4. Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values -.

4.5. Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. - .

4.6. India as a mega-diversity nation –

4.7. Hot-sports of biodiversity –

4.8. Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts. –

4.9. Endangered and endemic species of India –

4.10. Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.


5.0. Environmental Pollution :

5.1. Definition,

5.2. Cause, effects and control measures of :

5.2.a. Air pollution

5.2.b. Water pollution

5.2.c. Soil pollution

5.2.d. Marine pollution

5.2.e. Noise pollution

5.2.f. Thermal pollution

5.2.g. Nuclear hazards

5.3. Solid waste Management :

5.4. Causes, effects and control measures of urban andindustrial wastes. –

5.5. Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. –

5.6. Pollution case studies. –

5.7. Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.

6.0 Social Issues and the Environment

6.1. From Unsustainable to Sustainable development –

6.2. Urban problems related to energy –

6.3. Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management –

6.4. Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case Studies –

6.5. Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions. –

6.6. Climate change, globalwarming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Case Studies. –

6.7. Wasteland reclamation. –

6.8. Consumerism and waste products. –

6.9. Environment Protection Act. –

6.10. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. –

6.11. Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act –

6.12. Wildlife Protection Act –

6.13. Forest Conservation Act -Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. –

6.14. Public awareness.

7.0. Human Population and the Environment :

7.1. Population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion –

7.2. Family Welfare Programme. –air

7.3. Environment and human health. –

7.4. Human Rights. –

7.5. Value Education. –

7.6. HIV/AIDS. –

7.7. Women and Child Welfare. –

7.8. Role of information Technology in Environment and human health. –Case Studies.

8.0 Field work :

8.1. Visit to a local area to document environmental assets River /forest grassland/hill/mountain –

8.2. Visit to a localpolluted site-

8.3. Urban/Rural/industrial/ Agricultural Study of common plants, insects, birds. –

8.4. Study of simple cosystemspond,river, hill slopes, etc.


Good evening Sir,

Few points on today’s class!!!

INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION:-

· Green revolution

- Technology

- Genetic engineering

- Increased farm output

· New food sources

· Blue revolution

- Aqua-culture

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

· Food supplies

· Food subsidies

· Agricultural aid

· International food trade

· Cash crops

What is soil?

· Soil is the topmost layer of Earth’s crust

· It is a renewable resource

· Soil composition

- Humus

· Soil organization

· Soil profile

- Top soil

- Sub soil

- Parent material

- Bedrock

EROSION

· Types of erosion

- Sheet erosion

- Rill erosion

- Gully erosion

- Stream bank erosion

· We got to know about the erosion in US

· Erosion in other countries

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES:-

· Water

· Fertilizer

· Climate

· Energy

· Crop diversity

SOIL CONSERVATION

· Managing topography

- Contour plowing

- Strip farming

- Tied-ridges

- Terracing

· Providing ground water

- Cover crops

- Mulch

· Reduced tillage systems

WHAT ARE PESTS AND PESTICIDES?:-

· Biological pests

- Insects

- Large animals

· Botanical pests
- weeds

· Pesticides

- Insecticides

· Herbicides

- Fungicides

PESTICIDE PROBLEMS

· Effects on non target species

· Pesticide resistance/pest resurgence

· Creation of new files

· Persistence and mobility in the environment

· Human health problems.

ALTERNATIVE PESTICIDE USES:-

· Crop rotation

· Biological controls

- Predatory insects

- Pathogens

· Herbivorous insects

· Genetic and bio-engineering

BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY:-

· Food

· Drugs

· Medicine

· Ecological growth

· Aesthetic and cultural benefits

THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY:-

· Extinction

· Natural causes

· Mass extinction

BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION:-

· Hunting and fishing laws

· Endangered species act

· Recovery plans

· Private land and critical habitat

· Minimum viable population

· Habitat protection

· International wildlife treaties

· Zoos

· Botanical gardens

· Captive breeding programs

WORLD LAND USE:-

· Forest,30%

· Range and pasture,26%

· Cropland,1%

· Other,33%

- Tundra

- Desert

- Wetlands

- Urban areas

WORLD FORESTS:-

· forest distribution

- open canopy

- close canopy

- woodlands

Next we moved on to the chapter “Earth, a dynamic sphere”.

· Earth’s layers

- Crust

- Mantle

- Outer core

- Inner core

· Tectonic processes

- Tectonic plates

- Magma

· Shifting continents

ATMOSPHERE,COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE:-

· Gas mixture

· Layer envelope

- Troposphere

- Stratosphere

- Mesosphere

- Thermosphere

- Ionosphere

CONSERVING MINERAL RESOURCES:-

· Recycling

- ‘Al’ and ‘Pt’

- Steel and iron

· Substituting new material for old ones.

WEATHER ENGINE:-

· Solar radiation/heat

- Albedo (reflectivity)

- greenhouse effect

· convection currents

- water vapor

This was all for today..!

Kinsky Joshi

CSE-2A



POINTS WE DISUSSED TODAY(28/03/2012)

Ø Food hunger and nutrition

o Under nourishment-food with less energy than what is required

o Over nourishment-food with more energy than what is required

Ø Nutrition needs

o Proteins

o Carbohydrates

o Minerals

o Lipids

Ø World major crops

o Wheat

o Rice

o Corn

o Potatoes

o Milk and meat

o Crop lands

Ø Increasing food production

o Green revolution-revolution which promotes the afforestation . M.S. Swaminathan is man of Green revolution in our country.

o Genetic production-production of food by removing the pest attracting quality. Reduces quality of nutrition

o Increased farm output-output of production is increased by several techniques.

Ø Agriculture economics

o Food supplies-free or low cost supply of food to the common people

o Food subsidies

o Agriculture aid

o International food trade-trading of food. Unfortunately we need to import the same amount of food we export, which is sufficiently available in our country

o Cash crops-cotton, rubber e.t.c

Ø World hunger

o Famines-shortage of food.

o Food shortages

Ø Soil resources and sustainable agriculture

o Soil –renewable source

o Soil composition –humus

o Soil profiles

· Top soil

· Sub soil

· Parent material

· Bed rock

Ø Types of soil erosions

o Sheet erosion

o Rill erosion

o Gully erosion

o Stream bank erosion

Ø Agriculture resources

o Water

o Fertilizers

o Climate

o Energy

o Crop diversity-cultivating variety of crops at one place.

Ø Soil conservation

o Managing topography

o Contour plowing

o Strip farming

o Tied ridges

o Terracing

Ø Pest control

o Biological pests

· Insects

· Large animals

o Botanical pests

· Weeds

o Pesticides

· Insecticides

o Herbicides

· Fungicides

Ø Pesticide problems

o Effect on non target species-they will effect on the surrounding resources. E.g :-drinking water

o Pesticide resistivity-pests become resistive after a certain period of time. That means the pesticides no longer work on pests.

o Creation of new pests-pesticides in turn create pests

o Human health

Ø Alternate pest uses

o Crop rotation

o Biological control

o Herbivorous insects

o Genetic and bio engineering

Ø Bio diversity

§ Number of species in any animal is called biodiversity

§ Benefits of biodiversity

o Food

o Drugs

o Medicines

o Ecological benefits

o Aesthetic and cultural benefits

§ Threats of biodiversity

o Extinction of species

o Natural causes

o Mass extinction

Ø Biodiversity problems by human

§ Habitat destruction

§ Hunting and fishing

§ Commercial products and live specimens

§ Predator and pest control

Ø Protective methods for biodiversity

§ Hunting and fishing laws

§ Endangerous species art

§ Recovery plans

§ Private land and critical habitat

§ Habitat protection

§ Zoos

§ International wild life treaties

§ Botanical gardens

§ Captive breeding programs

J.Harikrishna
2nd CSE-B



Points we discussed in the class today (2012/03/14)

GENERAL ISSUES

Ø We went through the presentations of the students.

Ø Psychic treatment is done using crystal therapy.

Ø Earth, water, fire, air, ether represent the 5 fingers.

Ø Dousing is an instrument used measure Buddhi.

ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY

Ø Toxic chemicals cause infectious diseases.

Ø Few toxic chemicals

o Respiratory fibrotic agents-thickening and scarring of connective tissue in lungs will reduce the rate of respiration

o Asyphyxiants-

o Mutagens-these are responsible for muting of voice.

o Teratogens-agent causing malfunction of an embryo

o Carcinogens-poisonous agents

Ø Physical agents

o Radiation

o Trauma –distress

o Diet

Ø Moment ,distribution and fate of toxins

o Solubility-solubility of toxics in water will affect the life that depend on that source

o Bio accumulation-

o Persistence-the affects of some incidents like(Bhopal gas accidents) are persistent even after few generations

o Chemical interactions

Ø Minimizing toxic affects

o Metabolic degradation

o Excretion(toxic materials can be minimized by excretion eg:-person subjected to snake bite is asked to drink salt water in excess which will sent out the poison in the body through vomiting)

o Repair mechanism(repair mechanism is the mechanism in which body repairs the actions of the toxic chemicals that enter the body.eg:-drinking water will keep reduce the affects of toxic chemicals)

Ø Measuring toxicity

o Animal testing

o Toxicity ratings

o Acute v/s chronic doses and affects

Ø Assessment

o Risk-risk in which it is not bearable

o Acceptable risk-risk which is bearable

hari jonnalagadda

CSE2


Class discussion 14th march,2012

To become the Best teacher , must have the “The Presence of Mind”.

Tree is the Best God

Every puja in our culture is based on ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE

If we do everyday SURYANAMASKARAM then we will be out of psycic problems.

In the California University there is a Crystal therapy for treatment.

Environmental Science and Toxicology

Health Hazards

Ø Infectious diseases

Ø Respiratory diseases

-Pneumonia

-Tuberculosis

-Influenza

-Whooping cough

Ø We have 3000 holes on our body

Toxic chemicals

vIrritants

vRespiratory fibrotic agents

vAsphyxiants

vAllergens

vMutagens

vTeratogens

vCarcinogens

Natural and synthetic toxic

Ø Physical agents

-Radiations

Ø Trauma

-Stress

Ø Diet

Chemical Hazards and toxicology

Ø Dose and response

-LD50 factor

Ø Acute effect

Ø Chronic effect

Types

Ø Toxic substances

Ø Hazardous

Ø Carcinogens

Ø Mutagens

Ø Teratogens

Movement ,Distribution and fate of toxins

Ø Solubility

Ø Bioaccumulation

Ø Biomagnification

Ø Persistence

Ø Chemical interactions

Minimization of Toxic effects

Ø Metabolism Degradation

Ø Excretion

Ø Repair mechanisms

Measuring toxicity

Ø Animal testing

Ø Toxicity ratings

Ø Acute vs chronic doses and effects

Ø Detection limits

Assessment

Ø Risks

Ø Acceptable risks?

Ø Risk analysis

Identifying risks

Sarika G

CSE2B


Pesticides

o Pesticides are chemical substances used to prevent or repel or destroy the pests.

o Examples of pests may be insects, plant pathogens, weeds, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes.

o Insecticides are a pesticide used against insects.

o DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine insecticide which is a whitecrystalline solid, tasteless and almost odourless.

Types of pesticides

o There are many types of pesticides

1. Inorganic pesticides

2. Natural organic

3. Fumigants

4. Chlorinated hydrocarbons

5. Organophosphates

6. Carbonates

7. Microbial agent

Pesticides problems

o Effects on non-target species

o Pesticide resistance

o Creation of new pests

gonella gayathri

CSE-A

















Assignment on Technical words:

An Ecosystem is a region with a specific and recognizable landscape form, such as forest ,grassland,desert,wetland or coastal area.

Ecosystems are the basis of life itselfs!

Ecosystems act as resource producers and processors.

Solar energy is the main driving force of ecological system,providing energy for the growth of plants in forests ,grasslands and aquatic ecosystems. Land itself is a most important Natural resource. It is necessary for foood production,animal husbandry,industry,and for our growing human settlements. Non-renewable resources are minerals that have been formed in the Lithosphere over millions of years and constitute a closed system. These non-renewable resources, once used,remein on earth in a different form and unless recycled properly,become waste material like oil and coal;Although water and biological living resources are considered renewable, they are ,infact,renewable only within certain limits. The Diversity of life on earth is so great that if we use it sustainably we can go on developing new products from Biodiversity for many generations.

Biological Diversity deals with the degree of nature’s variety in the biosphere.

The loss of forest cover ,coupled with the increasing release of carbondioxide and other gases through Industrialization,contributes to the Green house effect.

SARIKA, CSE-2B




emigration - migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in oEmigration, forced or chosen, across national frontiers or from village to metropolis, is the quintessential experience of our rder to settle in another)
  • Immigration-Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. An immigrant is someone who intends to reside permanently, and not a casual visitor or traveler. Immigration means "in-migration" into a country, and is the reverse of emigration, or "out-migration." The long term and/or permanent movement of human population in general, whether into, out of, or within countries (or before the existence of recognised countries) is regarded as migration.
  • infant mortality
    1. infant mortality: top city populations: size of the british empire: unemployment: miles of railroad: irrigated cropland: cars sold worldwide: avg.
    2. Again, though, those better results do not mean that the risk of infant mortality is lowered with home birth, but that the postpartum health of the mother and baby may be improved.
  • Multi disiplinary-Multidisciplinary teams are groups of professionals from diverse disciplines who come together to provide comprehensive assessment and consultation in abuse cases. While their primary purpose is typically to help team members resolve difficult cases, teams may fulfill a variety of additional functions. They can promote coordination between agencies; provide a "checks and balances" mechanism to ensure that the interests and rights of all concerned parties are addressed; and identify service gaps and breakdowns in coordination or communication between agencies or individuals. They also enhance the professional skills and knowledge of individual team members by providing a forum for learning more about the strategies, resources, and approaches used by various disciplines
  • Sri vidya Paspunoori

    GLACIER:

    glacier is a river of water in a solid state; a mass of ice in constant movement with a certain speed depending on the slope and volume.

    The glacial ice is the product of the accumulation of snow throughout the centuries. Due to its own weight, the air trapped between the intergranular spaces is liberated.

    The main conditions to enable the formation of a glacier are great snowfalls, and a mean annual temperature which may preserve the ice consistency.

    DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION:

    Demographic transition is the shift in a population from an old demographic situation marked by natality and mortality that are high and that approximately balance out, to a modern demographic situation in which natality and mortality are low and also approximately balance out. During the transition, mortality is lower than natality and the population grows fast. Description: http://www.cite-sciences.fr/lexique/habillage/glp/an/img/spacer.gif

    EMIGRATION:

    The relocation of people from one country to reside in another. People emigrate for many reasons, include increasing one's chance of employment or improving quality of life.

    Emigration affects the economies of the countries involved. When people leave a country, they lower the nation's labor force and consumer spending. On the other hand, the countries receiving the emigrants tends to benefit from more available workers, who also contribute to the economy by spending money.

    BIODEGRADABLE:

    Capable of being broken down (decomposed) rapidly by the action of microorganisms. Biodegradable substances include food scraps, cotton, wool, wood, human and animal waste, manufactured products based on natural materials (such as paper, and vegetable-oil based soaps)

    URBANISATION:

    Urbanization can be defined as the rapid and massive growth of, and migration to, large cities. Positive and negative consequences resulted.

    Urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change
    Urbanisation is when people move into the city from the country, but they have not lived in the city before.

    BY

    ASHWINI REKHA

    CSE 2B


























    Overexploitation:

    Overexploitation occurs when a resource is consumed at an unsustainable rate. This occurs on land in the form of overhunting, excessive logging, poor soil conservation in agriculture and the illegal wildlife trade. Joe Walston, director of the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Asian programs, called the latter the "single largest threat" to biodiversity in Asia. The international trade of endangered species is second in size only to drug trafficking.

    Holistic management:

    Holistic management describes a systems thinking approach to managing resources that builds biodiversity, improves production, generates financial strength, enhances sustainability, and improves the quality of life for those who use it. Developed by Allan Savory, holistic management offers a new decision-making framework that managers in a variety of enterprises, cultures, and countries are using to help ensure that the decisions they take are economically, socially, and environmentally sound, simultaneously—both short and long term.

    Monoculture:

    Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area. It is also known as a way of farming practice of growing large stands of a single species. It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labor. However, this ratio remains true only if the accounting for labor required is limited to the number of workers employed on the farm. If the indirect work of employees involved in producing chemicals and machinery are taken into account, the ratio of labor to output is higher.

    Bioaccumulation:

    Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other organic chemicals in an organism.[1] Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of the substance the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the toxin are not very high.

    Bioconcentration:

    Bioconcentration is a situation in which the levels of a toxin in an organism exceed the levels of that toxin in the surrounding environment. This term is often used specifically in reference to aquatic environments and aquatic organisms, in contrast with the related “bioaccumulation,” which can refer to toxins and organisms found in a variety of environments.

    By T.Narmada(cse-2b)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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    TECHNICAL TERMS IN 1st unit of ES
    1. SUCCESSION: The development of different communities over a period of time at same site is called SUCCESSION.
    • CLIMAX CUMMUNITY: The process of succession and change in environment would continue till an equilibrium is established between the changed environment and a community called CLIMAX COMMUNITY.
    • BIOME: The complex of many communities growing in a particular area and sharing a common climate is called BIOME.
    • ECOLOGICAL NICHE: Each population occupies a specific volume of the habitat circumscribed by the interaction of various environmental factors and trophical level of the organisms.It is calledECOLOGICAL NICHE.
    • BIOGENETIC NUTRIENTS:A number of inorganic substances are taken by the living beings for their metabolism and body building .They are called asBIOGENETIC NUTRIENTS.
    • BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING: The biogenetic nutrients keep on circulating between the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem.This phenomenon is called BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING.
    • BIOACCUMULATION: BIOACCUMULATIONoccurs within a trophical level ,and is the increase in concentration of a subustance in certain tissues of organisms bodies due to absorption from food and the environment.
    • BIOCONCENTRATIOIN: BIOCONCENTRATIONis defined as occurring when the uptake from the water is greater than excreation. It occurs within an organism unlike bioaccumulation.
    • BIOMAGNIFICATION: Increase in concentration of a subustance ,such as the pestiside DDT is called asBIOMAGNIFICATION orBIOAMPLIFICATION or BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION.
    • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: The conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems,and the species that make them up,sustain and fulfill human life are called as ECOSYSTEM SERVICES.
    • CARRYING CAPACITY: CARRYING CAPACITY in ecology refers to the level of land or resource used both by humans or animals,that can be sustained over the long term by the natutal regenerative power of the environment.
    monica reddy A












    Class Discussion:

    Monday(05-03-2021)

    Environment pollution

    ü Environment

    ü Environment Science

    ü Utilitarian conservation

    Regulate the usage

    Control the usage

    ü Altruistic preserevation

    v Planet earth

    v Population growth

    v Food shortage

    v Energy

    v Pollution

    In India there is a lot of production but there is a lack of preservation

    There are war – street strikes in America

    In westren countries tax is less but here tax is more

    In India liquid cash is less

    Ø Rich vs poor

    Ø North vs south

    Ø Human development index

    Developmental Discrepancies:

    * Basic social services

    * Agrarian reform

    * Employement

    * Civil rights

    * Sustainable resource use

    * Sustainable development

    Universal ethical Principles:

    · Relativists

    · Nihilists

    · Utilitarians

    · Modernalism and postmodernalism

    Ø Morals

    Ø Animal rights

    Ø Inherent value

    Indian people like to help others

    Ø Instrumental value

    World views and ethical perspectives:

    v Domination

    v Stewardship

    v Biocentrism

    We don’t allow everything to

    grow

    v Ecofeminism

    Environmental justice

    Environmental racism

    Toxic colonalism

    Is nature fragile or resilient?

    Population Dynamics:

    ü Growth to a stable population

    ü Logistic growth

    Whatever we require

    ü Environmental resistance

    Not able to balance

    Demeography - geography of population

    Factors affecting population growth:

    · Natality ,fecundity and fertility

    · Immigration

    · Mortality and Survivorship

    · Age structure

    · Emmigration

    · Education

    Factors affecting birth and fertility rates:

    Ø Education/ affluence

    Ø Importance of children to family labor force

    Ø Urbanization

    Ø Cost-raising and educating children

    Ø Education & employment opportunity

    Ø Infant mortality rate

    Ø Average marriage age

    Ø Availability – pension

    Ø Birth control

    Ø Religious beliefs,Tradition and culture

    Ø Nutrition

    Ø Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity

    Ø Health and technology

    Solutions influencing population

    Ø Controllling migration

    Ø Reducing birth rates

    Human Demography

    · Fertility

    · Birth rates

    · Mortality and death rates

    · Population growth rates

    · Life span and life expectancy

    -dedundancy ratio

    In India dedundancy

    · Emmigration and Immigration

    Why not conserve resources?

    - so that people can live tommorow

    v pronatalist / social pressures

    v birth reduction pressures

    v improved living conditions

    v development and population

    v Ecojustice view

    v Optimistic view

    v Pessimistic view

    v Social justice view

    v Infant mortality

    v Women’s rights

    Natural resources accounting:

    · Gross national product

    · Human development index

    · Non-market values

    · Cost/benefit ratios

    · Green business

    - which is not polluted

    · Jobs and the environment

    G.sarika


    120215

    Hello sir…

    We have discussed the definition of

    1. Environment : Living and non –living external factors that affect natural resources

    2. Envirnomental Science: Interdisciplinary study of human relationships with other organisms and non-living environment.

    3. Environmentalism: A social movement dedicated to protect the natural world.

    4. We totally depend complexity on the environment for survival

    5. We learnt differences between the world and earth ,world is the man-made earth whereas earth is the physical body(spheroid).

    6. They are two types of natural resources renewable and non-renewable resources

    7. Renewable resources: which we can use any number of times without harming to environment

    8. Ex: water ,wind and solar energy

    9. Non-renewable resources: If use once they can’t regain back and at certain time they will extinct.

    10. Ex: coal , petroleum

    11. The major problem now india is facing today is population ,due to over-population the energy crisis and natural resources become imbalance

    12. Science: what we experience by ourselves due to environment is called science

    13. Ecological footprints are not all equal in world average except in U.S(there are 5 times greater than world average)

    14. We are facing challenges in pollution, population , climate ,agriculture

    15. We have plenty of resources in our country that what we need, but we are not utilizing properly.

    16. Sustainable development : The use of resources to satisfy current needs without

    17. Polluting the environment.

    18. Crisis of unsustainability:

    1: due to over-consumption

    2: over simplified earth support systems

    3: addiction of fossil fuels

    19: The bird which eats a seed as it excreates only the seed will grow ….

    The name of the bird is dodo bird and the name of the tree is calvaria tree later it was called as dodo tree.

    swarna latha

    CSE-2A



    1 TO UNDERSTAND THE WAY NATURAL ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS
    2 THE WAY HUMAN DISRUPT THE FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL ECOSYSTEM
    3 WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT-
    ALL LIVING AND NON LIVING EXTERNAL FACTORS
    4 WE INTERACT WITH
    * LIVING THINGS
    * NON LIVING THINGS
    * OUR BUILT ENVIRONMENT
    * SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND INSTITUTIONS
    5 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WORLD AND EARTH
    6 WORLD IS THING MADE BY MAN
    7 HUMAN CAN CHANGE THE ENVIRONMENT
    8 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IS THE STUDY OF NATURAL WORLD WORKS
    HOW THE ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS HUMAN AND VICE VERSA
    9 NATURAL RESOURCES =SUBSTANCE AND ENERGY SOURCES NEEDED FOR
    SURVIVAL
    10 RENEWABLE RESOURCES: PERPETUALLY AVAILABLE
    EG:SUNLIGHT,WIND,WAVE ENERGY
    11 NON RENEWABLE RESOURES : CAN BE DEPLETED
    EG:OIL,COAL,MINERALS
    12 GLOBAL HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH
    -MORE THAN 6.7 BILLION HUMANS
    13 WHY SO MANY HUMANS?
    -AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
    *STABLE FOOD SUPPLIES
    -INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
    *URBANISED SOCIETY
    *SANITATION AND MEDICINES
    *MORE FOOD
    14 E.SCIENCE IS INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF HUMANITY'S RELATIONSHIP WITH ORGANISMS AND NON LIVING ENVIRONMENT
    15 OVERSHOOT-HUMANS HAVE SURPASSED THE EARTH'S CAPACITY
    16 WE ARE USING 30% MORE OF PLANETS RESOURCES THAT ARE AVAILABLE
    ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS
    17 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM --THE PERCEPTION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES A PROBLEM VARIES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETIES
    18 SMELL IS ENOUGH TO MAKE SICK
    19 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE IS NOT ENVIRONMENTALISM
    20 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE --THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE NATURAL WORLD
    21 SCIENCE--A SYSTEMETIC PROCESS FOR LEARING ABOUT THE WORLD AND TESTING OUR UNDERSTANDIN OF IT
    22 SCIENCE IS
    * TO SORT FACT FROM FRICTION
    * DEVELOP SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS WE FACE
    23 THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF SCIENCES
    i) EXPERIMENTABLE SCIENCES
    ii) EXPERIENCIAL SCIENCE
    24 SCIENTIFIC METHOD-- A TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING IDEAS AND OBSERVATIONS
    25 THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS OF COUNTRIES VARY GREATLY
    26 US FOOTPRINT IS ALMOST 5 TIMES GREATER THAN THE WORLD'S AVERAGE
    27 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HAVE MUCH SMALLER FOOT PRINT THAN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
    28 EXPANDED FOOD PRODUCTION LED TO INCREASED POPULATION AND CONSUMPTION
    29 NEARLY HALF OF THE PLANET
    CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
    PESTICIDES
    EROSION
    CHANGED NATURAL SYSTEMS
    30 THE EARTH'S SURFACE IS WARMING
    *MELTING GLACIERS
    *RISING SEA LEVELS
    *IMPARTED WILD LIFE AND CROPS
    *INCRESINGLY DESTRUCTIVE WEATHER
    31 FOSSIL FUELS ARE A ONE TIME BONANZA,SUPPLIES WILL CERTAINLY DECLINE
    32 TRANSPORTATION IS THE COSTLIEST ITEM
    33 EARTH RECYCLES AND MAKESW US SUSTAIN
    34 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY--MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE THAT INVESTIGATES
    35 CONSERVATION--CAREFULL USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES
    36 POLLUTION--AN UNDESIRABLE CHANGE THAT CAN ADVERSELY EFFECT THE ENVIRONMENT
    37 NON DEGRADABLE--CANNOT BE BROKED BY NATURAL RESOURCES
    38 ENVIRONMENTAL LAW--ENACTMENTS THAT ENSURE THAT THE ENVIRONMENT IS PROTECTED
    ENACTMENT--TO MAKE ACTS
    39 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
    i)GLOBAL WARMING
    ii)ACID DEPOSITION
    iii)URBANISATION
    iv)LAND DEGRADATION
    v)WATER POLLUTION
    vi)OZONE DEPLATION
    vii)SPECIES ENDANGEMENT AND EXTINCTION
    viii)SOLID WASTE
    40 BIODIVERSITY--NUMBER OF SPECIES
    41 GOD HAS CREATED 129 CRORES OF VARIETY OF CREATURES, PLANTS,ANIMALS
    42 CAUSES OF BIODIVERSITY




    THANK YOU SIR

    ashwini rekha

    CSE-2B


    NATURAL RESOURCES

    Ø Resources comes from nature.

    Ø Human populations disrupt the functioning of the natural ecosystem.

    Ø The construction mechanism has increased in such a way that they started using all natural resources in their daily life.

    Ø External factors :- Living and Non-Living.

    · Our surrounding consists of living things, on-living things, our built environment, social relationships and institutions.

    Ø History of earth is called geology.

    Ø The main cause of pollution is population.

    Humans and world around us.

    Ø We the who changes the environment or changes the chemistry of the environment.

    Ø Natural world resources plays a vital role in human survival.

    · Global human growth

    Ø Pollution is increased due to population, industrial gases etc.

    Ø India and china are the leading countries in population growth.

    Ø The main problem is more food.

    · people produce more food in India and about 1/3th of the people who are starving in India.

    · Urbanized society powered by fossil fuels.

    · Substances and energy sources needed for surrounding.

    · Natural resources are anything that is produce by nature.

    Ø Renewable resources:

    · sun energy

    · wind energy

    · wave energy

    · geothermal

    · fresh water

    · forest

    Ø Non-renewable resources:

    · crude oil

    · natural gas

    · coal

    · Copper, Aluminum other metals.

    Ø Environmentalism

    Ø We should understand and speak about environment.

    Environmental science

    Ø Environment is we and our surrounding.

    Ø Science learning systematically and what we experience.

    Ø It interdisciplinary science study of humanity's relationship with other organism and

    non-organism.

    Ø Sustainability :- live with what we have.

    Ø Non-sustainability means creating problems later.

    Ø Due to industrial revolution carbon dioxide has risen 37% in 650,000 years.

    Ø Earth warming will cause many problems in world.

    Ø :-( Melting glaciers

    Ø :-( Impact wild life

    Ø :-( Rising in sea levels which may cause floods, tsunami etc.

    Ø :-( Increasing destructive weather

    Ø :-( Depletion of ozone layer,etc.

    Ø Transportation also have major impact on environment.

    Ø Pollution is an undesirable change in environment.

    Ø Environment law

    Ø In 1991,we got the power and responsibility of creating anything and can be sold in the

    market.

    Ø Enactment :- An act which is a long discussion that can be questioned in the court and

    the people start arguing about it and against it.

    Ø Learning of environment is an multi-disciplinary.

    · Awareness in people is necessary to protect the nature.

    · One should be disciplined in maintaining things.

    Ø Plastics with are the non-degradable substance(which cannot be broken in to natural process) should be banned in the world and one must start using paper bags.

    Ø We should plant more and more trees to save nature.

    SAVE NATURE TO SAVE OUR-SELVES.

    Sowmya,

    CSE 2(A).



    Good evening sir!


    Today we have discussed about,
    1. National resources.
    2. Resources comes from nature.
    3. Environment science is study of (1. how natural world works & 2. how the environment affects and vice-verse).
    4. Natural resources id vital to human survival i.e water, wind, solar.
    5. We have learned about RENEWABLE & NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES.
    6. Human population is growing rapidly.
    7. We also came to know that we INDIA has got more agricultural products than we actually in need off.
    8. But also 1/3 rd of our Indian people are starving.
    9. Environmental science is also a interdisciplinary study of humanity's.
    10. It includes engineering and also politics.
    11. There are 2 types of pollution which are degradable & non-degradable things.
    12. We are degrading earth and depleting its resources.
    13. We need to have ecological balance by natural resources.
    14. We human beings have suppressed earth's capacity.
    15. We are facing problems in agriculture,pollution, and climate.
    16. Nearly half of the planet land is used for agriculture.
    17. Now-a-days we are surviving by fossil fuels.
    18. We came to know that we interact with
    • Our built environment
    • living things
    • non-living things
    19. Science is of 2 types, they are
    • Experimentiable
    • Experentiable

    20. Finally we discussed about Bio diversity(number of species on earth).

    prasanth


    2nd ES CLASS COVERYNG UNIT 2
    DOCUMENTED IN BRIEF
    • GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF ES : 1.Understand the way natural ecosystem works,2.understand d way human causes environment problems & 3.propose and evaluate solutions to current environment problems.
    • ENVIRONMENT:TThe combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth,development and survival of organisms.
    • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE:It id the study of 1)how the natural world works and 2)how the environment affects humans and vice versa. (OR)
    Inter disciplinary study of humanity's relationship with other organisms and the non living
    environment
    • CLASSFICATION OF RESOURCES:
    • 1) NATURAL RESOURCES:Resources which are present in nature.They are further classified as
    • A)RENEWABLE SOURCES:Any natural source that can be replenised naturally with passage of time. examples:-wind,sunlight
    • B)NON RENEWABLE SOURCES:These are those resources which are consumed much faster than nature can create them. examples:-fossil fuels
    • 2)MAN-MADE RESOURCES:A man-made resource is a resource that has been created through acts of human.they are not available in nature and are produced and consumed by human. ex:-bleach
    CAUSES OF ENIRONMENT POLLUTION:
    1. OVER POPULATION
    2. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
    3. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
    4. URBANIZED SOCIETY POWERED BY FOSSIL FUELS
    5. BETTER SANITATION AND MEDICINES
    SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS:
    1. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE -Without using chemical fertilizers
    2. TECHNOLOGY - Reduces pollutions
    3. BIODIVERSITY -Protect species
    4. WASTE DISPOSAL - Recycling
    5. ALTERNATIVE FULES - Reducing pollution
    6. POPULATION CONTROL - Low use of resources
    FEW DEFINATIONS
    • ENVIRONMENTALISM : A social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world.
    • SCIENCE : Learning systematically
    • experiencing and learning is also science.
    • SCIENCE IS ESSENTIAL: 1)To sort fact from friction. 2)Develop solutions to the problems we face.
    • A SCIENTIFIC METHOD CONSISTS OF:
    • 1)observations
    • 2)questions
    • 3)hypothesis
    • 4)predicitions
    • 5)test
    • 6)results
    • EXPERIMENTS TEST THE VALIDITY OF HYPOTHESIS: We have two types of experiments.They are
    • 1)manipulative experiment
    • 2)natural or correlational test
    • THE MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSEMENT: How many years we can live like this, in this kind of environment.

      A.MONICA REDDY
      CSE-2A



    NATURAL RESOURCES

    It should be NNRMS (NATIONAL NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) instead of Natural Resources.

    General Objectives :-

    · Functioning of the Ecosystem.

    · Plan over resources, but we don’t have control over them.

    · Purpose & evaluate solution to current environment problems.

    · Understand it so that locally we can think over its usage.

    Def:

    Environment – living and non-living external factors that affect an organism.

    Our Surroundings :-

    · Living things

    · Non-living things

    · Our built environment

    · Social relationship and institution

    Human and World Around Us :-

    Humans change the environment….in ways not fully understood.

    What we do on earth is world.

    Environment Science is the study of

    · How the natural world works

    · How the environment affects human and vice versa

    Def :

    Natural Resources – Substance and energy sources needed for survival.

    Types of Natural Resources :-

    · Renewable resources: Ex: Wind energy, Solar energy, Tidal energy etc.

    · Non-renewable resources : Ex: Oil, Coal, Minerals etc.

    Global human population growth

    · More than 6.7 million humans

    · Why so humans

    1. Agricultural revolution

    Ø Stable food supplies

    2. Industrial revolution

    Ø Urbanized society powered by fossil fuels

    Ø Sanitation & medicines

    Ø More food

    Def :

    Environmental Science – It’s an interdisciplinary study of humanity’s relationship with other organisms & the non-living environment.

    Why study Environment Science

    · Basic problems

    · Degradation

    · Current behavior is unsustainable

    Environment Problems

    · Usage of pesticides such as DDT (used for killing malaria-carrying mosquitos)

    Nature of Science

    · Science

    Ø A systematic process of learning about the world & testing our understanding of it

    Ø A process of observation, testing & discovery

    Ø The accumulated body of knowledge that results from this process

    · Science is essential

    · Develop solution to the problems we face

    Experiments test the validity of a Hypothesis

    · Manipulative experiments :- yields strongest evidences

    · Natural or Co relational tests :- shows real world complexity

    Def :

    Footprint – how much resources we require is called as footprint.

    We face challenges in Agriculture

    · Expand food production lead to increasing population & consumption

    · It’s one of humanity’s greatest achievement but at an enormous environmental cost

    Earth surface is warming

    · Melting glaciers

    · Increasing sea levels

    · Increasing destructive weather

    Crisis of Unsustainablity

    · Overpopulation

    · Over-consumption

    · Addiction to fossil fuels

    Environment laws

    · Enactment that ensures that the environment is protected

    · Provide legal basis & protecting endangered species, critical habitat, other natural resources & humans

    Environmental Issues

    · Species endangerment & extinction

    · Global warming

    · Acid deposition

    · Urbanization

    · Land degradation

    · Water pollution

    · Ozone depletion

    · Solid waste

    Def :

    Biodiversity – number of species which we have is known as biodiversity

    Other points which you told during the class:

    1. 129 crore varieties of animals, plants are created by Lord Brahma.

    2. We can’t adjust the environment but the reverse can be achieved by us.

    3. Population directly proportional to consumption and nature won’t be able to support it.

    Ecological footprint : (Diagram)

    Scientific Method : (Diagram)

    Text Box: Reject Hypothesis
    Text Box: Fail to reject Hypothesis








    C


    Rajneesh Singh

    CSE-2A



    *8*********888*********


    Class Discussion on Wednesday 15-02-2012

    v The word “Environment” is a French word.

    General Objectives.

    1) Understand the way natural ecosystems function.

    2) Appreciate the way in which human populations disrupt the functioning of the natural ecosystem and thus cause environment problems.

    3) Propose and evaluate solutions to current environmental dilemmas.

    Ø Environment is total of our surroundings.

    Ø Environment consists of all living and non-living things.

    Ø There is a difference between Earth and World.

    v Earth is physical.

    v What we make on earth is the World.

    Ø Environmental science is the study of

    § How the natural world works.

    § How the environment affects humans and vice versa.

    Ø Natural Resources are vital to human survival.

    Ø Natural Resources are substances and energy sources needed for survival.

    Ø Regeneration of electricity by train.

    Ø In environment there are

    o Renewable sources.

    o Non-Renewable sources.

    Ø Global human population growth

    More than 6.7 billion humans.

    Ø M.S Swaminathan had done a lot of revolution on agriculture.

    Ø We produce more food than we consume.

    At the same time there are one-third of people lives

    Starving.

    Main problem is Transportation

    Ø There is a statement by American-In India and China no electricity.

    Ø In the globe at the place of Equator

    Environmental problems are more

    But at the remaining portion

    Environmental problems are bad.

    Ø Interdisciplinary study of humanity’s relationship with other organisms and the non-living environment.

    Ø Integrates knowledge from many.

    Ø The “ecological footprint”

    Ø there should be Ecological balance.

    Ø One more main problem is Overshoot.

    Ø Environmental science is not Environmentalism.

    Ø science is an Experience.

    Ø We need not know how is it work.

    Ø There are two types of science

    § Experimental science

    § Experienciable science

    Ø Science is essential

    -to sort fact from fiction

    -develop solutions to the problems we face.

    Ø The scientific method.

    Ø Research is nothing but philosophy.

    Ø A technique for testing ideas with observations.

    Ø Assumptions.

    Ø The scientific process is part of a larger process.

    Ø Population and consumption.

    Ø Ecological footprints are not all equal.

    Ø The U.S footprint is almost 5 times greater than the world’s average.

    Ø We face challenges in agriculture.

    Ø Expand food production.

    Ø Tt is one of humanity’s greatest achievements,but at an enormous environmental cost.

    Ø We face challenges in pollution

    Ø We face challenges in climate.

    Ø The earth’s surface is warming

    Melting glaciers

    Rising sea level

    Impacted wild life and crops.

    Increasingly destructive weather.

    Ø We face challenges in biodiversity

    Ø We do not use renewable sources because,

    There is lot of initial investment.

    There are no maintainance Engineers.

    Ø Things are getting better.

    Ø SUSTAINABILITY: a goal for the future

    Main causes

    Ø Main causes

    · Crisis of unsustainability

    · Over population

    · Over consumption

    · Addiction to fossil fuels

    · Oversimplification of earth’s life

    · Support systems

    Ø Environmental law

    Ø Enactment that ensure that the environment is protected.

    Ø Environmental issues

    § Urbanization

    § Solid waste

    § Ozone depletion

    § Water pollution

    § Land degradation

    § Species endangermentand extinction

    § Global warming

    § Acid depositions.

    G.sarika ,

    CSE-2B.





    Good evening sir,
    Today we have studied 2nd unit i.e.,NATURAL RESOURCES
    First thing we have studied in this session is about the general objectives
    1. Understanding the way natural ecosystems functions
    2. The way human populations disrupt the functioning of ecosystem which leads to environmental problems
    3. propose and evaluate solutions to current envionmental dilemmas

    we have studied more about environment

    • human beings are producing more than they need
    • how the animals and human beings are related to each other and also to environment
    • enactment-make a rule that is implemented
    -enactment is one of the environmental laws
    • we must develop solutions that protect both our quality of life and the environment
    • our energy choices will affect our future
    -the lives we live today are due to fossil fuels
    • what we experience is called science
    • science is essential to develop solutions to problems we face
    • ecological footprint-understands the balance of ecologies
    • we are using 30% more of the planet's resources than are available on a sustainable basis!
    • global human population growth
    • NATURAL RESOURCES-substances and energy sources needed for survival
    • natural resources plays a vital role for human survival
    -renewable resources-which can be recycled
    -non-renewable resources-which cannot be recycled(which we can't get back
    We have also studied about living things and non -living things that effect an organism
    • environmental problem
    • environmental science is not environmentalism
    • the ecological footprints of countries vary greatly
    • developing countries have much smaller footprints than the developed countries
    • many people think environmental conditions are better
    • conversation-careful use of natural resource
    NATURAL ENVIRONMENT & PLANNING AGENCY
    Established as a legal entity in 1991 with powers and responsibilities for:
    => pollution
    => wast management
    => coastal zone management
    => environmental education
    => national parks
    => watershed management
    BECOMING PART OF NATURE
    LIVING WITH NATURE
    -Soundarya
    CSE-2b

    ==========================================================


    UNIT 2
    Ecosystem and Natural resources

    1) Our session for today started with the general objectives behind the chapter:
    a) Understand the way natural ecosystems function.
    b) Appreciate the ways in which human population disrupts the functioning of natural ecosystem and thus cause environmental problems!
    c) Propose and evaluate solutions to current environmental dilemmas.

    2) Living and non-living factors that affects us:
    • Surroundings
    • living things: animals,humans.
    • non-living things: chemichals,pesticides etc .
    • Built in environment: buildings,vehicles.
    • Social relationships and institutions.
    3) Humans change the environment....in ways not fully understood!!

    4) We depend completely on the environment for survival.

    5) Environmental science is the study of:
    • How the natural world works.
    • How the environment affects humans and vice versa.
    6) Natural resources= substances and energy source needed for survival.

    7) Resources are of two types:
    a) Renewable resources (sunlight,wind,wave energy,timber).
    b) Non-renewable resources (oil,coal,minerals).

    8) Global human population growth is the biggest problem (6.7 billion).

    9) Other problems that arise are:
    a) Agriculture revolution i.e. stable food supplies.
    b) Industrial revolution i.e. urbanized society powered by fossil fuels.
    c) Sanitation and medicines, and more food.

    10) Environmental Science: Interdisciplinary study of humanity's relationship with other organisms and the non living environment.

    11) Problems:
    a) Ex: DDT, a pesticide.
    In developing countries: Welcome because it kills malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
    In developed countries: Not welcomed, due to health risks.

    12) Environmentalism:
    A social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world.

    13) Science:
    a) A systematic process for learning about world and testing our understanding it.
    b) A process of observation,testing and discovery.
    c) The accumulated body of knowledge that results from this process.
    d) Develop solutions to problems we face.


    14) Two types of Science:
    a) Experiential science.
    b) Experimental Science.

    15) Scientific methods:

    Observations-> Questions-> Hypothesis-> Predictions-> Test-> Results.

    16) We even got to know about FOOTPRINTS which meant the amount of resources we require.

    17) Challenges we face in agriculture:
    a) Expanded food production led to increased population and consumption.
    b) Its one of humanity's greatest achievements but an enormous environmental cost.

    18) Since the industrial revolution, atmospheric carbondioxide concentratins have risen by 37% to the highest level in 650,000 years.

    19) WE live today because of:
    i) Machines.
    ii) Chemichals.
    iii)Transportation.
    iv) Products.

    20) Fossil-fuels are one time bonanza,supplies will certainly decline.

    21) We have used up half of world's oil supplies:
    -> CORNUCOPIANS: human ingenuity will solve any problem.
    -> CASSANDRAS: predict doom and disaster.
    22) ENVIRONMENT LAWS:
    a) enactment that ensure that the environment is protected.
    b) provides legal basis for protecting endangered specied,critical habitat,other natural resources and humans.

    23) We were told about NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING AGENCY(nepa).

    24)Issues giving rise to problems:
    a) Land degradation.
    b) global warming.
    c) ozone layer depletion.
    d) solid waste
    e) Urbanization.
    f) Acid deposition.
    g) species endangerment and extinction.
    h) water pollution.

    25) Today BIODIVERSITY LOSS is 1000 times higher than the rates found in the fossil record.
    UNIT-2 : NATURAL RESOURCES
    These are the topics that we learnt in thz unit
    1. Undeestand the way natural ecosystems function
    2. Appreciate the way in which human populations disrupt the functioning of the natural ecosystem and thus cause environmental problems.
    3. propose and evaluate solutions to current environmental dilemmas
    Environment:All living and non-living external factors that effect known as environment
    Environment:the total of our surroundings
    • All things around us with while we interact.
    • Living things
    Animals,plants,forests.
    • Non living things.
    Continents,Oceans,Clouds,soil,rocks.
    • Our built environment.
    Buildings,human-created living centers.
    • Social relationships and institutions.
    Humans and the world around us
    • Human change the environment......in ways not fully understand.
    • We completely depend on the environment for survival.
    1. Increased wealth,health,mobility,leisure time.
    But natural systems have been degarded
    i.e.,pollution,erosion and species extinction.
    2. Environmental changes threaten long-term health and survival.
    Environmental science: It is the study of
    How the natural world works.
    How is the environment effects the humans and vice versa.
    Natural resources
    virtual to human survival.
    Natural resources = substances and energy sources needed for survival.
    These natural resources are of two types
    1.Renewable resources and
    2.Non Renewable resources
    1.Renewable resources:which are permanently available sunlight,wind,wave energy.
    Renewable themselves over short periods
    timber,water,soil.
    2.Non renewable resources:these can be depleted.
    oil,coal,minerals.
    • Global human population growth
    more than 6.7 billion humans
    why so many humans?
    1. Agricultural revolution
    • stable food supplies.
    2. Industrial revolution
    urbanized society
    Environmental science is not environmentalalism
    1.environmental science 2.The persuit of knowledge about the natural world
    • What is environmental science?
    • Why to study environmental science.
    • Environmental science: how does the natural world work?
    • What is an "Environmental problem"?
    • The nature of science.
    Science:learning systamatically about the world and testing our understanding of it.
    • Science is essential
    1. To sort fact from ficition.
    2. Develop solution to the problems we face.
    • Science which is useful for man and it is sustainbility truth.
    • Ecological foot prints.
    • We faces the challengers in the agriculture.
    • We faces the challengers in pollution.
    • our energy choices will effect our future.
    • Are things getting better or worse?
    • How can we decide who is correct?
    • How can human live within the planets means?
    • pollution
    1. Degradable
    2. Non degradeable.
    • Environmental law
    • Natural environment & planning Agency.
    • Activities of natural environmental & planning Agency.
    THANKING U SIR.
    From:p.srividya
    cse 2-b

    120201

    we have studied about:

    · Environner: to encircle or surround

    · Scope of environment (atmosphere,hydrosphere,lithosphereand biosphere)

    · Environmental studies(systematic understanding of our environment)

    · Objectives of environment

    · Importance of environment

    · Environmental issues

    · Benifits of environment

    · Addressing environmental problem

    · Major global environmental problems

    · Need for public awareness

    · Environmental education goals

    · Green technology or clean technology

    · Goals of green technology

    · Green tech subject areas

    · Living with nature as the nature expects us to see in life-Studying environment science

    · Algore wise president of america who got noble prize for the film which tells about global warming

    · we also studied about sapthashudhi and also the percentage of oxygen & carbondioxide in air

    -BY

    SOUNDARYA

    CSE-2B


    ANNA HAZARE'S MOVEMENT

    A new landmark in the history of independent India,a new path paved by the anti-corruption campaigner Anna Hazare.His struggle against corruption is a gentle remainder of Mahatma Gandhi's satyagraha.Anna Hazare is wagging a peaceful non-violent war against corruption in India.His urge to free India from greatest devil,corruption,commends appreciation.His fight against corruption is not a one man show but people from all over India supported him.The greatest merit against the non-violent struggle is that no political party is involved in it.Anna hazare and his supporters are not influenced by any political party.

    There was only one flag waving high in the sky and in our minds the Indian national flag.According to Jan lokpal bill there will be a separate body to investigate and club the ugly face of India-"CORRUPTION" where people have the right to raise their voice against corrupt politicians.Therefore the bill if enacted will act as the most powerful weapon in the war against corruption.

    The main theme of the movement i,e.. anti-corruption is welcomed by every one because it is slowly sucking the blood of this country.It is also a constitutional as the parliament has passed the prevention of corruption act 1988.Neverthless the method adopted by Ana Hazare may be effective but not constitutional.Today Anna is a beacon of hope for the millions of fellow Indians filled with years of pent-up frustations on the issues of corruption.Anna has become the new leader of million of Indians in all walks of life in possibly the greatest public uprising against corruption since the time of independence.

    thank you sir,

    T.Avantika,

    cse-2b,


    ASSIGNMENT-1

    MOVIE- “INCONVENIENT TRUTH”

    Indian scientist Rajendra Pachauri, who chairs the UN panel on climate change shared the Nobel Peace Prize with former US Vice President Al Gore.

    ASSIGNMENT-2

    Q: What is the type of Farming without using fertilizers, motors and vehicles?

    A: Organic farming .

    Ø It is either really expensive or really cheap, depending on where we live.

    Ø In the USA, converting to organic agriculture is a huge undertaking for commercial farmers, who have relied on chemical fertilizers and pesticides for many decades, but in India, the conversion is no less arduous, and far more ironic.

    01-FEB-2012, WEDNESDAY.

    CLASS DISCUSSION

    LIVE WITH NATURE AND WORK TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE FUTURE.

    v MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

    v EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY

    v CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

    v GLOBAL WARMING

    v INCREASE IN PERCENTAGE OF CARBON FROM 0.03(IN NILES REGION) TO 0.04 -0.05 (IN HYDERABAD) DUE TO POLLUTION.

    v IN THE INHALED AIR WE MAKE USE OF OXYGEN AND EXHALE OTHER GASES AS THEY ARE.

    v IN ATMOSPHERE PERCENTAGE OF OXYGEN IS 20-21%

    v IF OXYGEN IS LESSER THEN EVERY PART IN OUR BODY STARTS BLEEDING.

    v 4.04% OF CARBONDIOXIDE IS EXHALED FROM 20% OF OXYGEN INHALED

    v AIR CLEANS OUR BODY AND CHANGES OUR CHEMISTRY.

    v WE BREATH 18 TIMES PER MINUTE, WHILE DOGS BREATH 40 TIMES.

    v GLOBAL WARMING MUST ACTUALLY BE CALLED ‘LOCAL CITY WARMING’.

    v THERMAL PLANTS ARE HIGHLY POLLUTED.

    v COPPER IS A DEBACTERIAL.

    v || DHASAKUPA EKAVAMI

    DHASAVAMI EKANADHI

    DHASANADHI EKAPUTHRA

    DHASAPUTHRO EKAVRUKSHA. ||

    v MEDICAL WASTE IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM.

    v EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    1. GLOBAL WARMING.

    2. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION.

    3. ACID RAIN

    4. DEFORESTATION.

    5. LOSS OF BIO-DIVERSITY.

    6. WATER POLLUTION.

    7. RAPID POPULATION GROWTH.

    8. DEPLETION OF NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES.

    9. FOOD AND WATER SHORTAGE.

    v WEALTH FROM WASTE

    v NNRMS: NATIONAL NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

    v SUSTAINABILITY.

    v CRADLE TO CRADLE DESIGN

    v SOURCE REDUCTION

    v INNOVATION

    v VIABILITY.

    G.SARIKA, CSE 2B.




    Good Evening Sir.I'd be pleased to share some points on today's session on environmental science:

    1) We began our session with "air".That is the composition of various gases in air that is carbon dioxide and oxygen. And the mechanism of breathing was also taught by you.

    2)The next was the "sapthashudhhi mantra".

    3)We breathe 18 times per minute.

    4)Hurry, worry increases our Carbon dioxide that comes out.

    5)You mentioned about your poetry “UNDEVIDED EARTH'.

    Wherein you spoke about how will the earth be without human beings, and just animals and other creatures around!!.

    THE UNDIVIDED EARTH

    If the whole human race disappears

    From the worldly earth

    Without the slightest trace

    In a moment machines will run and burn

    The trucks will hit and stop

    Flying crafts will dash down

    Within days, these places

    Where I sat and slept

    Will go to the ants and rats

    In months my house and land

    Will be free for cats and dogs

    Let the animals enjoy!

    The muddy heaps all around

    With the earthy smell

    Will cheer the plants

    In years the trees will work havoc

    Buildings will collapse

    Multi flats will become hillocks

    Bridges will break down

    Roads will become valleys

    And metros will sink in water

    Fish will swim free

    In the streams on the street

    In bliss of the new found land

    The nice earth with no boundaries

    Only rivers and mountains

    Plants unshaved and untrimmed

    Animals free with no belts and ties

    Where pets and wild don't differ

    And permitted to roam around free

    With no humans around

    The world has no name

    Only the earthly life

    GOD, grant me another birth

    With less of brain

    And more of heart

    To live free and fair

    To see the earth

    As the undivided one!!!

    6)Then we moved on to the topic,'scope of the environment', where we spoke about atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.

    7)The next topic was, what actually environmental science is all about:

    a) Systematic understanding of our environment.

    b) Highly interdisciplinary.

    c) Inclusive.

    d) Holistic.

    e) Mission- oriented.

    f)essential to study to overcome "environmental crisis".

    8)Next, the objective were brought to limelight:

    a) Awareness.

    b) Knowledge.

    c) Attitude.

    d) Skill.

    e) Participation.

    9) i came to know that a buffalo's stomach contained 300kg of plastic!!.

    10)We were told that “The Great Global Warming Swindle” is a polemical[1] documentary film that suggests that the scientific opinion on climate change is influenced by funding and political factors, and questions whether scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming exists..

    11) Al Gore, Pachauri's IPCC share peace Nobel. Al Gore

    was the man who won noble prize for his movie 'An Inconvenient Truth’ which was picturised on Global warming.

    12) We were told about The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming.

    13) Our next topic was 'Carbon trading'.

    14) You even spoke of changing the name from 'Global warming' to 'Local city warming'.(which you strictly prohibited us to write in exams).

    15) Only 54% of people in India get electricity!.

    16)Farming without motor and using genetically modified seeds is called "ORGANIC FARMING".

    17) Then we were told about Agnihotri and how usage of copper vessel kept diseases away.

    18)10 wells=1 pond.

    10 ponds=1 river.

    10 rivers= 1 son.

    10 sons=1 tree.

    19) At last we were shown some pathetic videos on"animal killing".

    Thank you so much Sir,its an honor to have somebody like 'you' as our guide and teacher.

    Yours Sincerely,

    Kinsky Joshi

    120201

    --------------------

    vImportant Points Discussed Today are:

    *Importance of Environmental Studies

    *% of CO2 & Oxygen we are inhaling

    *Difference b/w Human beings & Animals

    · Human is a social being

    · Similar things in both:Food,Sleep,Sex

    *Environment means “me and my surrounding”

    *Different levels of atmosphere

    *Environer:condition that surround an organism

    *Objectives:

    · Awareness

    · Knowledge

    · Attitude

    · Skill

    · Participation

    *Famous movie:The Great Global Swindle

    *Carbon Trading

    *Population=>main reason for environmental pollution

    *Green Technology

    *Goals:

    · Sustainability

    · Cradle to cradle design

    · Source reduction

    · Innovation

    · Viability

    *Ozone Depletion Layer

    *Deforestation

    *Global Warming

    *Increasing Temperature(in just duration of 4 months e.g.,New Delhi)

    *30% people uses 70% facilities whereas 70% people uses only 30% facilities

    From-

    Gaurav Ch,CSE 2B

    120201

    ---------------------------------------

    https://mail.google.com/mail/images/cleardot.gifTOPICS DISCUSSED IN TODAY'S ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE (LIVING WITH NATURE)

    1 THE STUDY ON GLOBAL WARMING
    2 AIR IS USED FOR EATING,SPEAKING..FOR EVERYTHING IN THE BODY
    3 ADRENALING- THE CHEMICAL REACTION IN THE BODY
    4 GLACIER- THE SOLIDIFIED ICE
    5 BRINGING AWARENESS ON ENVIRONMENT
    6 PLANTAIN- BANANA TREE
    7 THE CARBONDIOXIDE % IN RURAL AREAS IS 0.03,WHEREAS IN URBAN AREAS IS 0.05
    8 THE % OF OXYGEN WHICH GOES INSIDE HUMAN BODY IS 20% & CO2 IS 0.04% AND WHICH COMES OUTSIDE THE HUMAN BODY IS CO2-4%&O2 IS 16%
    9 HUMAN BEING BREATHS 18 TIMES PER MINUTE BUT WHEREAS IN ANGRY HE BREATHS 40 TIMES PER MINUTE.
    10 A DOG BREATHS 40 TIMES PER MINUTE
    11 MONKEY CAN JUMP APPROXIMATE 56 FEET
    12 " LIVING WITH NATURE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN LIVING IN NATURE "
    13 HUMAN IS ALSO A PART OF ENVIRONMENT
    14 NO DOG SITS AND LISTENS TO CLASSES
    15 FOOD,SLEEP,KNOWLEDGE,SEX ARE FOUR FACTORS FOR SURVIVAL
    16 LIVE LIFE AS GOD AS GIVEN YOU
    17 YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
    18 HUMAN'S MINDSET CAN BE KNOWN ON THE FOOD HE EATS
    19 ABOUT ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, HYDROSPHERE, LITHOSPHERE
    20 ATMOSPHERE IS APPOX 142 KMS
    21 "MANAS IS LIKE WAVES IN SEA"
    22 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
    23 A BUFFALOS STOMACH CONTAINS APPOX 300 KGS OF PLASTIC
    24 USAGE OF SOLAR PANELS,SOLAR SYSTEMS
    25 ABOUT CARBON TRADING
    26 GLOBAL WARMING CAN BE STATED AS LOCAL CITY WARMING
    27 YOU ARE WHAT U ARE
    28 10 WELLS = 1POND
    10PONDS = 1 RIVER
    10 RIVERS = 1SON
    10 SONS = 1 TREE
    29 THE BIGGEST PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENT IS HUMAN BEING
    30 BENEFITS OF EVS
    31 ADDRESSING ENV PROBLEM
    32 MAJOR GLOBAL ENV PROBLEM
    33 NALGONDA'S WATER PURIFICATION TECHINIQUE
    34 SINGAPORE IS MOST CLEANEST PLACE
    35 ABOUT GREEN TECHNOLOGY
    36 BIOGASS-DUNG OR KITCHEN WASTE
    37 WEALTH FROM WASTE
    38 COPPER IS MOST DEBACTERIAL


    FROM
    ASHWINI REKHA

    CSE2B

    120201

    -----------------=====+++++=====------

    · Text Box: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES  Today we had a class conducted on environmental studies by Dr.T.P.Sasikumar sir.

    · Environment is what surrounds a thing or an item.

    · Environment includes HUMAN BEINGS.

    · Glacier is solidified ice.

    · On the top of Himalayas the oxygen is less hence it becomes difficult to respire and a person starts bleeding.

    · In atmosphere we have 0.03% of carbon and 20% of oxygen.

    · We have 4 layers surrounding the earth 1)atmosphere2)hydrosphere3)lithosphere4)biosphere

    · Atmosphere varies from 142kms-145kms.

    · Hydrosphere: earth composed of water bodies.

    · Lithosphere : outer shell of earth composed of crust and rigid outermost matter.

    · Biosphere :

    · Objectives of EVS:

    a)creating awarness about our environment.

    b)knowledge of our surroundings .

    · Importance of EVS are:

    · Evs enlighten us about the importance of protection and conservation of our environment.

    · Evs have become significant for the following reasons:

    · Environment issues being of international importance.

    · Explosive increase in pollution.

    · Need for an alternative solution.

    · Need to save humanity from extinction.

    · Need for wise planning of development

    · Problems cropped in the wake of development.

    · We had a discussion about carbon trading.

    · Global warming which actually means LOCAL CITY WARMING.

    · We have discussed the benefits of EVS.

    · Conservation of energy and fast depleting natural resources.

    · Increase in economic producting.

    · Creaing awarness to control population.

    · Global warming,acid rain,deforestation,water pollution,increase of population are the global environmental problems.

    · Wind,water are renewable sources whereas coal is non renewable sources.

    · Depletion of non renewable energy sources is also a major problem.

    · So we need to create public awarness on environment.

    · Environment protection is every individuals obligation and duty.

    · Reformative measures if not under taken would result in extinction of life.

    · We discussed on Green technology.

    · Green technology means evolving group of methods and materials for generating energy to non toxic cleaning products.

    · Sustainability:learning with nature.

    · Most of the pollution is caused from cities and not from the villages.

    · 54% of the villages are not electrified,they are under darkness.

    · 70% of common people get 30% of resources while 30% of higher class people get 70% of resources.

    · A mantra saptha sudhi.

    · A part from environment studies we had a discussion on general and useful topics.

    · How is a man better than the animals.

    · We had been shown a video on how meat is produced.

    · From the video we realized how unkindly the poor animals are killed and we thought of stop eating the non-veg from today.

    · We had been shown a slide of 20 points to how to be a good student and we try to implement them.

    Thank you sir,

    avanthika tummala

    Cse-2b.


    • An inconvenient truth is a 2006 documentary film directed by davis Guggeheim
    about former united states vice president Algore's compaign to educate citizens about Global warming.
    • The film also earned $ 49 millions at the box office world wide.becoming the sixth-highest-glossary documentary film to data in the united states.
    • Since the film's release an inconvenient truth has been credited for raising international public awareness of climate change and regenerizing the environmental movement.
    • The documentary has also been included in science circulla in schools around the world ,which has spurred some conventary.
    from :
    p.srividya
    cse-2b

    To sasikumar sir
    1.Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
    These are the topics we learnt in this 1st unit
    • Scope of the environment
    1.Atmosphere:Virtual ocean of air
    2.Hydrosphere:the surface of earth filled with any form of water
    3.Lithosphere:Outer shell of the earth composed of crust and rigid outer most
    mantle
    4.Biosphere:The place on earth where life exists.
    • Systamatic understanding of our environment
    • Highly inter disciplinary
    • inclusive
    • Mission-oriented
    • Essential to study to overcome
    • Objectives of environmental studies
    1.Awareness
    2.knowledge
    3.Attitude
    4.Skill
    5.Participation
    • Importance of EVS.
    • Benefits of EVS.
    • Major global environmental problems.
    • Need for public awareness
    • Non formal education and awareness.
    • Green technology
    • Goals of Geen technology
    1.Sustainability
    2.Cradle to Cradle design
    3.Source reduction
    4.Innovation
    5.Viability
    6.Energy
    7.Green buildings
    8.Environmentally preffered purchasing
    9.Green chemistry
    10.Green nanotechnology
    11.Green computing.
    Thanking u sir
    From:p.srividya
    cse-2b;

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