Thursday, February 16, 2012

EEE-3 on ES Learning


Good Evening Sir:

Experience in your Thursday (120216) class was awesome and lovely sir. It has been a very long time to listen such a class full of life. Those two and half hours listening to you was very informative and inspiring.

Example newspaper – I feel very lazy to read news paper, but felt very embarrassing when I was unable to answer the question fired by you.

The way you told anger can be controlled is good sir.

The example you gave for ecological foot print (eat only to stay alive) as said if our tongue is in our control people around would respect us and even stomach will be happy. The way u were following the discipline, cleaning the class putting things at place. Making us sit orderly and then starting the class.

Something I followed cleaning my room putting things in order and then started studying. There was lot of difference, studying in a clean room was more comfortable.



i felt very good feel by listening ur environmental science class.
1)sir i expecting the general information like environmental science and communication skills &student counselling from you.
2)today i listened ur class which inspired me alot.
3)ur explanation which includes general examples was easily understandable to me.
4)being a telugu medium student i want to improve my communicational skills . so i need help from you.i hope reply from you
thank you sir,
yours sincearly

sir iam a student of EEE 3rd year ... today by attending your lecture i got to know so many new things and also i got to know so many general things about environment..

vinay mokkala

sir i felt good about Ur teaching.

Ur teaching was different from all lecturers & today i listened Ur class i want to know some answers for some questions

important points like

1. plants on land utilize solar energy for food preparation .but what about the plants in sea which are large depth from land .

2.the co2 form as separate layer in the sky in cities but how this can be cleared (i,e by planting trees or any method).

3.what is the name of forest in Kerala which will have no noise.

i understood general explanation &examples in the class

thank you sir

your faith fully

E.Venugopal Yadav


1. plants on land utilize solar energy for food preparation .but what about the plants in sea which are large depth from land .

ANS 1.

First of all, what is photosynthesis? Well, it's how plants get their food. When you get hungry you probably just sit down and have something to eat. Plants, however, don't have it so easy, they have to make their own food. Plants use water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sunlight to make glucose (C6H12O6), also known as sugar. The process follows the chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O+light -> C6H12O6. The light has a special role. Just like your car needs gas in order for it to run, photosynthesis needs some kind of energy source for the reaction to occur, because the product has more energy than the starting materials. That fuel is sunlight. Plants have special little chemical machines based on the light-absorbing molecule chlorophyll to conduct the photosynthesis. Most plants and many bacteria get their food by photosynthesis.

So chemically, the photosynthetic process that land and aquatic plants use to produce food is identical. Both types of plants require carbon dioxide, water, and energy to produce glucose (their food). The only difference between photosynthesis in aquatic and land plants is where in their environments they get these nutrients. Land plants get water from the ground through their extensive root system, carbon dioxide from the air through their stomata (tiny holes in a plant's leaves), and energy from the sun. Aquatic plants get water and carbon dioxide from their aquatic environment and, like the land plants, light energy from the sun. Even though the plant is underwater, it still gets its energy from the sun because sunlight can pass through water.

To understand where aquatic plants find this CO2 think about your favorite kind of pop. Those bubbles that give the pop its fizzy nature come from CO2 that's dissolved in the liquid.


the co2 form as separate layer in the sky in cities but how this can be cleared (i,e by planting trees or any method).

Removal of Air Pollutants: Trees remove gaseous air pollution primarily by uptake via leaf stomata, though some gases are removed by the plant surface. Once inside the leaf, gases diffuse into intercellular spaces and may be absorbed by water films to form acids or react with inner-leaf surfaces. Trees also remove pollution by intercepting airborne particles. Some particles can be absorbed into the tree, though most particles that are intercepted are retained on the plant surface. The intercepted particle often is resuspended to the atmosphere, washed off by rain, or dropped to the ground with leaf and twig fall. Consequently, vegetation is only a temporary retention site for many atmospheric particles.

The transport and dispersion of air pollutants in the ambient air are influenced by many complex factors. Global and regional weather patterns and local topographical conditions affect the way that pollutants are transported and dispersed. For example, the prevailing direction for weather patterns in the United States is from west to east and this is an important factor in the transport of pollutants that contribute to acid rain.Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place.

Temperature inversions

Figure:Temperature inversions

On a more local level, the primary factors affecting transport and dispersion of pollutants are wind and stability. Wind is the natural horizontal motion of the atmosphere. It occurs when warm air rises, and cool air comes in to take its place. Wind is caused by differences in pressure in the atmosphere. The pressure is the weight of the atmosphere at a given point. The height and temperature of a column of air determines the atmospheric weight. Because cool air weighs more than warm air, a high pressure mass of air is made up of cool and heavy air. Conversely, a low pressure mass of air is made up of warmer and lighter air. Differences in pressure cause air to move from high pressure areas to low pressure areas, resulting in wind. Wind speed can greatly affect the pollutant concentration in a local area. The higher the wind speed, the lower the pollutant concentration. Wind dilutes pollutants and rapidly disperses them throughout the immediate area.

Atmospheric stability refers to the vertical motion of the atmosphere. Unstable atmospheric conditions result in a vertical mixing. Typically, the air near the surface of the earth is warmer in the day time because of the absorption of the sun's energy. The warmer and lighter air from the surface then rises and mixes with the cooler and heavier air in the upper atmosphere causing unstable conditions in the atmosphere. This constant turnover also results in dispersal of polluted air. Stable atmospheric conditions usually occur when warm air is above cool air and the mixing depth is significantly restricted. This condition is called a temperature inversion. During a temperature inversion, air pollution released into the atmosphere's lowest layer is trapped there and can be removed only by strong horizontal winds. Because high-pressure systems often combine temperature inversion conditions and low wind speeds, their long residency over an industrial area usually results in episodes of severe smog.

The dispersion of pollutants from a source is also influenced by the amount of turbulence in the atmosphere near the source. Turbulencecan be created by both the horizontal and vertical motion of the atmosphere. Other basic meteorological factors that affect concentration of air pollutants in the ambient air are: solar radiation, precipitation, and humidity. Solar radiation contributes to the formation of ozone and acts to create secondary pollutants in the air. Humidity and precipitation can also act on pollutants in the air to create more dangerous secondary pollutants, such as the substances responsible for acid rain. Precipitation can also have a beneficial effect by washing pollutant particles from the air and helping to minimize particulate matter formed by activities such as construction and some industrial processes.

Because of the factors responsible for the transport and dispersion of pollutants, air pollution produced in the United States Midwest can have adverse effects on lakes and forests in the East coast of the country. On the other hand, large cities bordered by complex topography, such as valleys or mountain ranges, often experience high concentrations of air pollutants because of the natural barrier that interrupts pollution dispersion. Los Angeles, Denver, and Mexico City are examples of cities located in basins bordered by mountain ranges. These cities experience high levels of air pollution influenced by the topography of the surrounding area. Although the overall causes of their respective pollution problems are complex, they are examples of situations where natural factors result in higher pollutant concentrations.

Although little can be done to control the natural forces that create these problems, there are some techniques that are used to help disperse pollutants. The most familiar way to disperse air pollutants is to use a smokestack. Smokestacks are tall industrial chimneys often used as a symbol for air pollution. Smokestacks are usually designed with the surrounding community in mind. Their function is to release pollutants high enough above the earth's surface so that emitted pollutants can sufficiently disperse in the atmosphere before reaching ground level. The higher the stack, the greater the likelihood that pollutants will be dispersed and diluted before affecting nearby populations.

The visible flow of pollutants from a stack is referred to as the plume. The height of the plume is influenced by the velocity and the buoyancy of the gases emitted from the stack. Often, heat energy is added to the stack gases to increase the height of the plume. This is referred to as plume rise and allows air pollutants emitted in this gas stream to be lofted higher in the atmosphere. Since the plume is higher in the atmosphere and at a further distance from the ground, the plume will disperse more before it reaches ground level.

Temperature inversions

Figure:Plume aerodynamic downwash caused by stack height and the immediate surroundings of the stack.

The shape of the plume is affected by the stack height and the immediate surroundings of the stack. As air moves over and around buildings and other structures, turbulent wakes are formed. Depending upon the release height of a plume (stack height) it may be possible for the plume to be pulled down into this wake area. This is referred to as aerodynamic or building downwash of the plume and can lead to elevated pollutant concentrations immediately downwind of the source. On the other hand, stability conditions in the atmosphere also will cause changes in the plume behavior. Stable conditions will cause the plume to be "flat" while instable conditions will cause the plume to "roll" or "loop".

Pollutants emitted from smokestacks can be transported over long distances. In general, the concentration of the pollutant decreases as it travels from the point of release and is dispersed by wind and other natural sources. Weather patterns influence the general direction and dispersion of the pollutant. As we mentioned before, pollutants released in the Midwest affect the population and the natural habitat in the East. Weather patterns are also the reason why pollution problems such as acid rain are issues of regional and international concern.


what is the name of forest in Kerala which will have no noise.


Significance of Silent Valley National Park

  • Exceptional Ecosystem diversity from moist deciduous, semi evergreen, evergreen and shola forests to montane grasslands.
  • Effectively protected, representative example of evergreen forests in India.
  • Exceptional species diversity and endemic value of evergreen and semi evergreen communities.
  • Significant population of Lion Tailed Macaque and Nilgiri Langur
  • Important watershed of Bharathapuzha
  • Potential for wildlife research and education.
  • Contiguous to Mukkurthi Tahr National Park, Reserve forests of Attappady and new Amarambalam area, a key component of a major conservation complex in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
  • It comes under Project Elephant area
  • Embodiment of nature conservation spirit in the country

Bio geographically, Silent Valley and the adjacent forests of the Western Ghats represent “ecological islands” in which it is possible to observe the conditions that prevailed before modifications set in, in the humid tropical forests of peninsular India. Though the stability of these ecological islands is fast dwindling, these ecological products introduce an important factor in the bio geographical evolution, viz. isolation mostly due to physical barriers as a result of the Palakkad gap. Isolation, therefore, has had the effect of preserving the relict characters of the flora and fauna of Silent Valley and adjacent areas, as indicated by the presence of primitive groups of flora and fauna. The distribution range of these relict species had been considerably restricted, presenting an apparent picture of endemism. The intermingling of Indo-Malayan elements in the flora and fauna of the area is due to preservation of the once extensive tropical forests, which extended over the whole of the Peninsula. The concentration and isolation of these elements only in some areas of the Ghats, present precarious picture of survival of relicts of an otherwise impoverished flora and fauna.

The ecological regimes in the southern Western Ghats may be characterized within the following four categories.

  • Elevation:- Low (<500M), moderate(500M -1500M), high(>1500 M)
  • Precipitation:- Dry (<1000 mm), moderate(1000 mm-2500 mm) wet (>2500 mm)
  • Topography:- Undulating, steep slopes
  • Hydrology :- Along water courses, away from water courses.

Such a classification will give in combination, 36 different ecological zones. The Silent Valley Plateau represents a very well preserved example of undulating terrain at mid elevation in the high rainfall zone under two zones, one along the water course, Kunthipuzha and the other away from the water course.
The Silent Valley Plateau, lying at the southwest corner of Nilgiris, sloping towards the south and is practically winged in by hills. The whole of the catchment’s forests are practically undisturbed, with no historical anthropogenic degradation, the sole exception being an attempt at coffee planting over 40 ha near the middle of Silent Valley Reserve during 1842, which was promptly abandoned in 1843, and also some selective felling amounting to 43,000 M3 for sleeper extraction from the southern half of the reserve. Because of the topographic isolation of the plateau, cut off as it is from the east, north, west and south by steep ridges end escarpments; there is little permeating influence from surrounding areas into this stretch of forests. There is no representation, comparable in area to the Silent Valley in the form of riparian and non-riparian ecosystems on undulating terrain at mid-elevation and in the high rainfall zone over the entire stretch of Western Ghats in Kerala.

Silent Valley forests show all the known characteristics of the tropical rain forests. These include:

  • a great network of surface roots in physical contact with moist leaf litter, the root mat having a biomass of 18 g dry weight in 5000 M3.
  • laurel type leaves with entire margin and with a drip-tip in the mesophyl, thick and leathery for emergent and relatively thin for the under storey species
  • very thin bark, less than 6mm in thickness
  • woody nature of leaflets and profusion of woody climbers and epiphytes
  • multi layered tree species with stature of more than 60 M with a trunk typically slender and often buttressed at the base, the crown depth and width being low compared to the trunk height
  • tree density and basal area are comparable to the richest tropical rain forests in other parts of the world
  • multi layered nature of the forest with emergent species raising their heads above the general canopy layer, consequently imparting an undulating bumpy look to the surface

The number of tree species computed for the Silent Valley (118 vascular plants of 84 species in 0.4 ha) is very high compared to a range of 60 to 140 species that characterise the other known tropical forests. The Alpha Diversity Index is 4.8, which is the same as that of another well known tropical rain forest, Barro Colorado Islands in Panama Canal. Zoological Survey of India had conducted faunal survey in 5 different locations. The specimens were sorted out into species and the groups compared. The levels of diversity in the Silent Valley were found to be much higher than those of the other areas.

The limited studies of the fauna of Silent Valley reveals that its rich resources as rare and unique – rare because many species which originally inhabited the entire belt of the Western Ghats have been lost due to destruction of their habitat by human beings or for other reasons. These faunal resources however are still available in Silent Valley, because of the relatively little human intrusion. It is unique because what little has been collected and studied has already proved to be of immense scientific interest from the taxonomic, zoogeographic and ecological points of view.
A number of species, which were available in the Western Ghats 50 to 100 years ago and which have not been recorded subsequently, still exist in Silent Valley. They include insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Type specimens of these, described earlier by scientists, have been deposited in museums outside India. Even prototypes are not available in India for referral studies.


1.environment means its mixture of our sorroundings and culture
2.environmental studies is not a specific topic,it is the study of our sorroundings,social responsibilities and our culture
3.studying about the environment is nothing but how it affect an individual and the sorroundings
4.the main aim of environmental studies is to aware,to give knowledge,attitude,skill devolpement & participation of every individual
5.its not a individual work,but it is an ethic to every individual
6.the problems that we are facing in these studies are Risk analysis,Public education,Proper political action.
8.To achieve above goals we hae to interlink devolpement & ecofriendly systems

1.goals of these studies are sustanability to survive future generations as we are. technology has tobe used
3.biofuels are to be used
4.Plantation for manefacturing has to increase

it is not only the study ,but it has to be is not possible to a individual ,but every individual has to work for next generation survival

we are blessed to have you sir....



good evening sir..
im swathi from 3rd begin with i never thought environmental science could ever be so full of's class was amazing...
we have got a lot of information from your teachings..."taking notes and making notes" is a briliant idea...thanks a lot for enlightening was an amazing experience sir....we will surely look forward to attend your classes...:)

swathi chaganti



Glad and nice to hear the loving words from you.

Where is the notes?

I love to see the notes from you email to me.

I am with you for all your learning spirits.

Let us make the campus an active place with lot of learning activities around.

Waiting for your notes.

God bless you





happy to see your reply sir...
in todays class ive learnt about eco system awareness about our environment problems that we generaly face in the environment and mainly about 'green technology'.it was really a refreshment from the daily classes what we have...we have learnt all these topics in our schooling....ive remembered all those days..:)

swathi chaganti

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